Extragalactic Jets – Why Ken’s Wrong

Extragalactic jets are a phenomenon on the frontier of science that astronomers can’t fully explain yet. Find out how Ken Wheeler tries to exploit this mystery to propagate his demonstrably false notions of the ether, the dielectric, light and matter.

One of the frontiers of today’s astronomy is the phenomenon of astrophysical jets. They’re unimaginably massive linear streams of high energy particles that seem to flow out of stars, black holes and even galaxies.

Physicists call the ones galaxies emit “extragalactic jets,” and they’re the largest known structures in the universe. In fact, these immense jets can be more than 100 times bigger than our entire galaxy.

Because it would take an inconceivable amount of energy to cause them, scientists have difficulty explaining the source of these jets. They’ve come up with two preliminary theories about how they might form.

Preliminary Theories About How Extragalactic Jets Form

One possible explanation has to do with the disks of gas and debris that surround black holes, neutron stars and pulsars. They’re called accretion disks, and the spin of these massive celestial objects may twist the disks’ magnetic fields in ways that somehow launch the charged particles into jets.

Another theory is based on the idea of “frame-dragging.” According to Einstein’s theory of general relativity, the presence of matter warps the fabric of space.

Astrophysicists theorize that massive, spinning objects like black holes, neutron stars and pulsars can alter (drag) observers’ frames of reference within time and space. This process may extract particle energy and momentum, unleashing the extraordinary jets.

Explanations Not Satisfactory -Yet

Readers may not be fully satisfied with these explanations. If so, they may find comfort in the fact that neither are scientists – yet.

Ken Wheeler has pounced on this exotic field of science to try to gain credence for his discredited ideas about field theory, magnets and science generally. He tells viewers he realized the jets’ true nature through an “incredibly uplifting, profound revelation” he’s had while in a magical, altered state of consciousness involving incantations, charms and spells that he calls “theurgy and synthesis,” during which he claims to access the “library of the cosmos.” We discuss the logical issues with theurgy in more detail under Retroduction – Why Ken’s Wrong.

Since scientists don’t fully understand extragalactic jets yet, the Angry Photographer tries to discredit them by setting impossible expectations of proof for their theories. Meanwhile, he seizes the opportunity to promote his unfounded notions as “better” explanations.

Seizes Opportunity to Promote Unfounded Notions

There are a couple of other reasons why the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis has targeted these phenomena. For one thing, he intensely resents Albert Einstein and his theories of relativity.

Some extragalactic jets contain relativistic particles travelling very close to the speed of light. Studying them reaffirms Enstein’s special relativity, one of the most successful theories in the history of science.

Extragalatic jets don’t just validate relativity, they also confirm the theory of quantum mechanics. Ken Wheeler vehemently denies the validity of this equally successful scientific theory, dismissing it with a conspiracy theory he calls “the cult of bumping particles.”

Needs to Find Ways to Discredit Scientific Explanations

So, Kentucky Ken needs to head those he calls “so-called scientists” off at the pass. It’s vitally important to him to find ways to discredit the emerging scientific explanations for extragalactic jets before genuine scientists can finalize them.

The Angry Photographer decrees without evidence that the jets “must necessitatively be ab-extra spontaneous generation of the hydrogen.” Of course, this is a logical fallacy.

Readers will remember the basic principle of the conservation of energy from high school. We can convert energy into matter and vice versa, but there’s no way for a black hole or anything else to magically generate brand new, or “ab-extra” matter.

Unfounded Notion of “Conjugate Geometry of the Universe”

Ken Wheeler tries to claim that all energy fields in the universe derive from an unfounded notion of the “conjugate geometry of the universe” he lifted from fake expert and electric universe crank, Eric Dollard. The Angry Photographer imagines this geometry as a combination of two shapes, the hyperboloid (hourglass) and the torus (donut). His diagram may help.

The hourglass shape represents his non-existent, imaginary energy field, the “dielectric.” As the magnetic field scientist and YouTuber AB science explains in detail here, there’s no such thing as a dielectric field.

According to the Theoria Apophasis host, at the narrowest point in his fanciful hourglass shape, there’s something he calls a “point of inertia.” He offers no evidence or explanation of why or how this is true, what it means, or how it works.

Imagines Extragalactic Jets Emerge from “Plane of Inertia”

Then, Ken Wheeler insists, an invisible flat surface emerges from that point called the “plane of inertia.” He imagines that extragalactic jets emerge from this plane of inertia at the centre of a galaxy or black hole.

Without explaining the process, he argues that extragalactic jets result from “the ether and the field geometry.” As we explain in more detail under Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong, back in 1887, Michelson and Morley proved conclusively that the ether doesn’t exist. Charles Proteus Steinmetz, who Kentucky Ken calls one of the “gods” of field theory called the ether hyposthesis a “mistake. Subsequent, formal experiments have confirmed this more than 30 times.

According to the Angry Photographer, his supposed “ab-extra matter” takes the form of hydrogen atoms. The best evidence scientists have at the moment shows that extragalactic jets don’t consist of atoms at all.

Consist of Electrons and Positrons He Claims Don’t Exist

Observations suggest that these enormous jets consist of electrons and their corresponding anti-particle, positrons. That’s a big problem for the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis because he maintains that electrons, positrons and all other elementary particles don’t exist.

Raising his logical fallacies to the next level of absurdity, Ken Wheeler tells his viewers that his imagined “hydrogen” in extragalactic jets is actually “ultra-high energy light.” In fact, he contends that all hydrogen atoms are high energy light and that the other chemical elements in the periodic table are compounded hydrogen.

This notion has multiple flaws. For something to qualify as matter, it has to have mass and occupy space, and light has neither of those properties.

Matter Consists of Atoms, Light Consists of Photons

Besides, light and matter consist of completely different particles. The building blocks of matter are atoms, while light’s elementary particles are photons.

Speaking of atoms, the rest of the elements aren’t compounded hydrogen. Elements aren’t compounds of anything else by definition.

In terms of chemistry, matter consists of elements, and elements combine into compounds. Elements aren’t compounds, and compounds aren’t elements, again by definition.

Fundamentally Flawed and Demonstrably False

Although the Angry Photographer calls his magical revelation “divine,” it’s fundamentally flawed and demonstrably false in myriad ways. There’s no such thing as the ether or the dielectric.

There’s no physical evidence or logical basis for his unsubstantiated hyperbolic geometry or his non-existent dielectric field. Extragalactic jets don’t emit hydrogen atoms, they emit the very subatomic particles the Theoria Apophasis host claims don’t exist.

Hydrogen isn’t ultra-high energy light, since light and matter aren’t the same thing. It’s impossible for anything in the universe to produce ab-extra matter out of nothing and nowhere.

Motivated Reasoning and Confirmation Bias

Ken Wheeler’s supposedly divine revelation is merely motivated reasoning and confirmation bias. He doesn’t want the theories of relativity or quantum mechnics to be true, so he cherry picks evidence he thinks will validate his bizarre notions about the ether instead.

Fortunately, the nonsense he spouts lacks the energy and magnitude of extragalactic jets. That makes it completely effortless to both explain and contain.

Ken’s Evidence

Galactic Emergence Natural Order
Probing the heart of extragalactic jets
A Review of Astrophysical Jets

Matter – Why Ken’s Wrong

Matter consists of protons, neutrons and electrons. Find out why this proven scientific fact distresses Ken Wheeler, leading him to concoct demonstrably false claims about fundamental science.

Scientists define matter as any substance that has mass and volume. Matter has three familiar states – solid, liquid and gas.

Although we don’t run across them in everyday life, matter also has other states, including plasma. Plasma is the state of matter inside stars, making it the most common matter state in the universe, despite our lack of contact with it here on Earth.

Atoms Contain Three Subatomic Particles

Matter consists of atoms. As most of us learned in high school, atoms contain three subatomic particles – protons, neutrons and electrons.

Remarkably, Ken Wheeler views these established scientific facts as part of a vast conspiracy to hide the truth. While demanding an impossible standard of proof from science, he claims without evidence that electrons don’t exist, neutrons are a category of proton and protons are synonymous with atoms, which are indivisible.

These notions are all demonstrably false. J.J.Thompson proved the existence of electrons in 1897.

J.J. Thompson Proved the Existence of Electrons in 1897

Thompson was experimenting with cathode rays when he realized that they weren’t electromagnetic waves like light beams. Instead, he found that cathode rays consist of tiny coprpuscles emitted from within the cathode.

Interpreting these findings, Thompson concluded that these corpuscles came from the atoms making up the cathode’s metal. This was the groundbreaking evidence that, despite their name, atoms are divisible.

The scientific community eventually settled on the term electron for Thompson’s corpuscles. Thompson received the Nobel Prize in 1906 for discovering the electron.

Video Footage of Electron Motion Captured in 2008

Skipping ahead to 2008, the journal Physical Review Letters published video footage of electron motion captured by the Lund University Faculty of Engineering in Sweden.

The researchers captured the video using short pulses of intense laser light. Here’s a frame from that video, which is conclusive proof that electrons exist.

Returning to the early 20th century, Ernest Rutherford, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden discovered the nucleus of the atom in 1913. They were trying to understand what held Thompson’s negatively-charged electrons in place.

Rutherford Called Particles at the Atom’s Centre Protons

The researchers bombarded metal foils with the postively-charged, alpha particles from radioactive elements. Because many of the alpha particles were deflected by more than 90˚, Rutherford realized that the atom’s positive charge had to be highly concentrated in particles at the atom’s centre, which he called protons.

James Chadwick disovered the neutron in 1932. Building on earlier experiments with the element beryllium, he found that the radiation it emitted consisted of particles with neutral charges.

Chadwick named these particles neutrons. They explained why atoms of the same element can have different atomic weights. The weight of an atom includes its protons but also its neutrally-charged neutrons, which vary in number within the same element, explaining why elements have isotopes.

Proven Fact that Protons, Neutrons and Electrons Exist

So, it’s a proven scientific fact that protons, neutrons and electrons exist. They’re the building blocks of the atoms that make up matter.

Based on claims by fake experts like Eric Dollard, the Angry Photographer insists that electrons don’t exist. Instead, he claims that the negatively charged wavelike properties of electrons are “ether perturbation modalities.”

As we explain in more detail under Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong, Michelson and Morley found that the ether doesn’t exist in 1887. Charles Proteus Steinmetz, who Kentucky Ken calls one of the “gods” of field theory called the ether hypothesis a “mistake.” The YouTuber Planarwalk also covers this in more detail here.

Can’t Explain Away Electrons Using the Ether

Since something that doesn’t exist can’t have perturbations or modalities, the Theoria Apophasis commits a logical fallacy when he tries to explain away electrons using the ether. There’s no question that electrons are elementary particles with wavelike properties.

Within the nucleus, Ken Wheeler also maintains that neutrons are merely a category of protons. He bases this notion on the claim that free neutrons quickly decay into protons.

The Angry Photographer neglects to mention two things about this free neutron decay. First of all, he conceals the fact that when free neutrons decay into protons, they release electrons – the existence of which he denies.

Free Neutrons Emit Electrons, Which He Says Don’t Exist

Secondly, neutrons inside the nucleus are highly stable and they’re distinct from protons in two key ways. They’re neutrally charged and they have greater mass than protons.

So, neutrons and protons are two distinct particle types. A neutron is absolutely not merely a category of proton as the Theoria Apophasis creator tries to argue.

To borrow a word of which Ken Wheeler is intensely fond, the internal structure of the atom is “undeniable.” Atoms are divisible, they have a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud of electrons, and these are all distinct types of subatomic particles.

Calls Matter High-Energy Light – False by Definition

Another claim the Angry Photographer puts forward about matter is that it’s simply high-energy light. Returning to our original definition of matter, this can’t be true.

Unlike matter, light occupies no space and has no mass. This is because, unlike subatomic particles, the photons that make up light are massless.

We can understand this intuitively from our own experience. When we enter a room and switch on the light, the light doesn’t use up any space within the room.

Light Doesn’t Qualify as Matter – It’s a Form of Energy

Further, if we were to weigh the room, it would have exactly the same mass, whether the light was turned on or off. So, light doesn’t meet the volume and mass criteria to be matter. Instead, it’s a form of energy.

As evidence for his peculiar notion, the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis cherry-picks some findings from an experiment in which scientists created components of matter using laser beams.

Professor J. Adam et al conducted the experiment to which Kentucky Ken refers at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2021. Again, he omits an important detail when citing this research.

Laser Beams Collide Producing Electrons and Positrons

In Professor Adam’s experiment, very energetic photons in laser beams collide, emitting electrons and their anti-matter equivalent, positrons.

This results from the Breit-Wheeler Process predicted by Gregory Breit and John A. Wheeler (absolutely no relation to Ken). Yet, Ken Wheeler cites this experiment while denying the existence of any of the photons and electrons on which the researchers based their findings.

Even more ironically, the experiment proves Einstein’s famous equation E=Mc2. Ken Wheeler dismisses Einsten as a “wooly-haired crackpot” and rejects all of his theories as “nonsense.”

Scientists Haven’t Created Hydrogen Out of Light

So, contrary to the Angry Photographer’s claims, scientists haven’t created hydrogen atoms out of high-energy light. The experiment caused colliding photons to emit electrons, disproving Kentucky Ken’s baseless hypothesis.

Light consists of photons, so it’s not a kind of matter. Matter consists of atoms, so it’s not a form of light, high-energy or otherwise.

Ken Wheeler tries to talk his way around this by co-opting the mathematical term spherical harmonic. A spherical harmonic is a mathematical technique.

Talks Around This, Co-Opting Term Spherical Harmonics

It’s a way mathematicians can apply formulas intended for a flat plane to the curved surface of a sphere. Although the calculations are analogous to the relationship between harmony and frequency in acoustics, spherical harmonics are unrelated to electromagnetic frequencies.

Despite this, the Angry Photographer claims that when the frequencies in the ether reach a certain threshold, they generate spherical harmonics, creating particles of matter.

In support of this notion, the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis has self-published a mathematical formula without any peer review from legitimate scientists. He claims to have received it while in a “deep, deep place,” a magical mental state induced by incantations, charms, rituals and idols that he calls “theurgy.” The formula goes like this:

Self-Published Peculiar Mathematical Formula

P = fC3,
Where P = proton, f = frequency and C = capacitance. On its surface, it bears a striking, perhaps deliberate, resemblance to Einstein’s E = Mc2. Any resemblance is purely coincidental in terms of its validity.

This equation has several flaws. Ken Wheeler further defines “proton” as “hydrogen, or zero hysteresis EMR” (electromagnetic radiation).

He offers no empirical proof of this definition, and, as we’ve seen, neither light nor any other form of electromagnetic radiation is hydrogen or any other element of matter, and a proton on its own is not a complete hydrogen atom.

“Magnetic Force Vector, Temporal Propagation below C3”

According to the Angry Photographer, frequency is the “magnetic force vector with temporal propagation below C3.” Everyone else in the world defines frequency as the number of recurrences of a repetitive event, such as a wave, over time.

Scientists normally understand capacitance to mean an object’s ability to store an electric charge. The Theoria Apophasis host claims that capacitance is “the ether induction rate.”

As we’ve seen, the ether doesn’t exist. Apparently, Ken Wheeler believes that raising his imaginary capacitance to the power of three somehow provides light with matter’s three dimensions.

None of the Terms in this Equation Make Any Sense

None of the terms in this equation make any sense. Additionally, to borrow one of the Angry Photographer’s favourite words, these terms are “incommensurable.”

By that I mean that they don’t share a common unit of measure. We measure protons in grams, frequencies in hertz and capacitance in unites called farads. Trying to multiply them together is nonsense, no matter what theurgical magical mystery tour the Theoria Apophasis took to dream up all this.

The more practical problem with Ken Wheeler’s spherical harmonics explanation is that the researchers in Professor Adams’ experiment used the Relativistic Heavy Iron Collider (RHIC). It measures the distribution of particles after they collide based on Einstein’s Special Relativity.

If There’s No Electrons, Particle Collider Can’t Detect Them

If there were no electrons, as Kentucky Ken insists, the particle collider couldn’t have detected them. If Einstein’s theories were nonsense, as he also maintains, the scientists couldn’t have measured their distribution.

Getting back to hydrogen, the Theoria Apophasis host makes another extraodinary and demonstrably false claim. He insists that all chemical elements are compounded hydrogen.

Hydrogen is the very simplest of all the elements. It consists of a single proton and a single electron.

Lighter Elements Formed During Big Bang

All the other elements are more complex, containing larger numbers of protons and electrons. The lighter elements formed during the Big Bang when “our whole universe was in a hot, dense state.”

Those high temperatures enabled lighter elements like helium, lithium and beryllium to form through nuclear fusion. This is an issue for Ken Wheeler.

The Angry Photographer denies that the Big Bang ever took place. His reason for this is that it contradicts the teachings of Plato that universe has always existed and always will.

Heavier Elements Formed Through Fusion in Massive Stars

Many of the heavier elements like carbon, oxygen, silicon and iron formed later through nuclear fusion in massive stars. The heaviest elements of all came from supernova explosions.

These massive blasts cause neutron capture reactions. These are the processes that produce the elements that are even heavier than iron.

The key point in all of this is that elements don’t form by compounding hydrogen. All elements form either through nuclear fusion of the protons in the atoms’ nuclei or by neutron capture.

Elements Don’t Form By Compounding Hydrogen

Elements can’t be compounded by definition. Conversely, compounds must consist of multiple elements.

It’s a contradiction in terms to claim that all elements are compounds of hydrogen or of any other element. Elements are elements and compounds are compounds.

Why does Ken Wheeler attempt to deny these proven scientific concepts? Oddly, it has to do with his spiritual beliefs.

Plato Taught We Have an Immortal Soul

The Angry Photographer identifies as a platonist and Plato taught that we have an immortal soul. Surviving bodily death seems to be the Theoria Apophasis creator’s most cherished personal desire.

In Ancient Greece, Plato and most of his students tended to believe in the ether. They were also inclined to accept the idea of the afterlife, usually through reincarnation.

On the other hand, some of Plato’s rivals, like Democritus and Epicurus, believed matter consisted of atoms. Conincidentally, they also tended to argue that death was the end of human consciousness.

What Does This Have to Do with Matter? Nothing

What does any of this have to do with our modern, scientific understanding of the nature of matter? Nothing whatsoever.

Yet, on this basis, Kentucky Ken has convinced himself that atomism = materialism = atheism = nihilism = evil. That’s why he struggles against the proven scientific facts about the composition of atoms tooth and nail.

If Ken Wheeler didn’t have a substantial subscriber base, his motivated reasoning wouldn’t be an issue. Regrettably, anyone who takes his odd notions about matter to heart will have to unlearn and relearn the fundamentals of basic science because of his disinformation.

If it weren’t for that issue, Kentucky Ken’s odd notions on these matters would hardly matter at all. After all, none of them contain a particle of truth.

Ken’s Evidence

Tesla and Walter Russell Define Matter
Matter (physics)
Scientists Generate Matter Directly from Light

Virtual Photons – Why Ken’s Wrong

Virtual photons are a regular target of scorn from Ken Wheeler. Find out why experiments demonstrate their existence and why the Angry Photographer feels forced to deny it.

Photons underlie all aspects of light and electromagnetic energy. That includes the charges that hold protons and electrons together inside atoms.

A wide range of scientific experiments have shown the existence of what scientists call “virtual photons.” Probably the two best known examples among numerous others are the Stahlhoffen-Nimtz quantum tunnelling experiment and the Lamb-Retherford experiment. 

Willis Lamb won the Nobel prize in physics for the latter experiment. The effect of virtual photons on the spectrum of hydrogen atoms is called the Lamb Shift in his honour.

Willis Lamb Won Nobel Prize for Virtual Photon Experiment

The terms “virtual photons” and “virtual particles” can be misleading. They make these particles sound like something artificial or imaginary, like virtual reality. However, as Professor Gordon Kane of the University of Michigan explains, “Virtual particles are indeed real and have observable effects that physicists have devised ways of measuring.”

Despite these facts, Ken Wheeler denies and ridicules the idea of virtual photons in just about every video he makes. Demanding an impossible standard of evidence, he repeatedly claims that “virtual photons are not the inputs or outputs of any experiment ever performed on this earth.”

As we’ve seen, virtual photons are the output of many experiments. In fact, they’re the product of a groundbreaking, Nobel Prize winning physics experiment, among numerous others.

Experiments Prove Photons Have Fascinating Property

These experiments prove that photons have a fascinating property. They can divide into an electron and its opposite particle, the positron.

That pair of matched particles recombine in the blink of an eye and become a photon again. The short-lived electron and positron combination is what physicists mean by a virtual photon.

Scientists observe virtual photons in several scenarios. One is the Lamb Shift mentioned above. When Lamb and Retherford studied the light spectra from hydrogen atoms, they measured unexpected differences between two energy levels. These were caused by what scientists have come to call virtual photons.

Stahlhoffen-Nimtz Quantum Tunnelling Experiment

In the Stahlhoffen-Nimtz experiment, the scientists aimed a symmetrical light beam at a pair of right triangle prisms with a gap in between them. This split the beam into a reflected signal and a signal that transmitted across the gap.

The two signals arrived at their detectors at the same time. Physicists call this effect quantum tunnelling and it’s due to the virtual behaviour of photons.

Another example is the way electrons transition from one state to another inside atoms. When scientists excite atoms, it raises their electrons’ energy state. 

Electrons Transition Between States Inside Atoms

Intuitively, we’d expect the electron to stay in that higher energy state because energy states are permanent. However, physicists observe these electrons returning to lower energy states because of interactions with virtual photons.

In another example, physicists observe photons bouncing off one another. Since photons have no charge, there’s no reason for them to attract one another.

However, when a photon divides into an electron and a positron, these charged particles may interact with other photons. Experiments reveal that those interactions can sometimes cause photon collisions. This is why Ken Wheeler goes out of his way to make fun of “the theory of bumping particles.”

Virtual Photons Cause Magnetic Fields Poles

Quantum electrodynamic (QED) experiments prove with a margin of error of 10−12 that virtual photons cause magnetic fields. These results make QED one of the most accurate physical theories in history.

The Casimir experiment offers even more empirical evidence for virtual photons. Scientists place two parallel mirrors facing each other in a vacuum. If they set them up at a distance smaller than the wavelength of the light they use, the mirrors will move toward one another.

This happens because once the distance between the mirrors is shorter than the wavelength, virtual photons no longer fit between them. That reduces the energy between the two mirrors, drawing them together.

Wrong When He Denies Virtual Photon Experiments

So, the Angry Photographer is committing a logical fallacy when he says that virtual photons aren’t the input or output of any experiment. Their existence is a proven scientific fact.

The Theoria Apophasis host persists in devoting enormous energy to ridiculing virtual photons for two reasons. First, he can’t explain the results of these experiments any other way.

Second, the existence of virtual photons, and other virtual particles, proves the theory of subatomic particles, which Kentucky Ken views as a vast conspiracy. Strange as it may seem, he vehemently denies proven scientific facts most of us learned in high school about electrons, photons and neutrons.

Subscribes to Pseudoscience by Discredited Theorists

Ken Wheeler subscribes to pseudoscience propagated by fake experts like Eric Dollard and Nikola Tesla. They deny the existence of subatomic particles. They’re also wrong.

Their notions fly in the face of more than a century of scientific progress. For example, this is a photograph of an electron.

And this is a colour-enhanced photograph of photons displaying wave-like and particle-like characteristics at the same time.

Views Discussions of Subatomic Particles as Moral Disputes

Oddly, the Angry Photographer views discussions of subatomic particles and their behaviour as moral issues. This is because he conflates modern particle physics with ancient Greek metaphysics.

The creator of Theoria Apophasis says he’s a staunch follower of Plato, although he frequently cherry picks quotes from Plato’s writings, quoting them out of context. Just as he mistakenly believed the Sun went around the Earth, Plato also believed in a substance called the ether. We now know there’s no such thing.

We debunk Ken Wheeler’s notion of the ether in more detail under Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong. Also, the YouTuber Planarwalk provides a more detailed refutation of the Angry Photographer’s notions about the ether here.

Ken Wheeler is Firmly on Team Plato

Democritus and Epicurus were rivals of Plato. They believed that matter consists of tiny particles they called atoms. As a result, they were sometimes called atomists.

Coincidentally, Plato believed in the afterlife while atomists generally didn’t. Since Ken Wheeler is firmly on Team Plato, he concludes that all atomists are evil.

What do ancient Greek philosophers have to do with today’s experimental observations? Nothing. What does particle physics have to do with morality or with the afterlife? Again, nothing.

In His Mind, If Photons Exist, He’s Going to Die Someday

The underlying issue behind Ken Wheeler’s ridicule of virtual photons is that, in his mind, if they exist, it means he’s going to die someday. This is something with which he’s been unable to come to terms.

When asked about what happens when we die, the Angry Photographer inevitably replies with, “what makes you think you’re that which dies?” He finds the idea of death without an afterlife oddly threatening.

Leo Tolstoy famously wrote that, “A person who is afraid of death is one who has not lived his life properly and has broken the law of life.” Throughout this website, we can see examples of the Theoria Apophasis host representing the work of others as his own, lying to his audience and defaming other content creators.

Rejects Any School of Thought Teaching No Afterlife

His resulting fear of death colours Ken Wheeler’s judgment when it comes to anything connected to science or philosophy. He rejects any school of thought that hints that he may have no afterlife as irredeemably evil.

The Angry Photographer is entitled to believe anything he likes about life after death. None of us could claim to have all the answers on such an esoteric topic. In his defense, most of us fear death in one way or another.

Rejects Scientific Facts that Challenge His Spiritual Beliefs

Even so, he goes out of bounds when he rejects proven scientific facts that, in his mind, challenge his spiritual beliefs. Facts are facts and we should all let them lead us toward the truth.

Michael Crichton wrote that, “We all live in virtual environments, defined by our ideas.” Sadly, in Ken Wheeler’s case, his ideas construct an illusory environment bearing virtually no resemblence to metaphysical or scientific truth.

Ken’s Evidence:

Are virtual particles really constantly popping in and out of existence?
What Are Virtual Particles?
What Is the Casimir Effect?
Ken Wheeler’s Incoherent Word Salad Tries to Prove the Aether
Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong

Education – Why Ken’s Wrong

Education triggers a lot of painful emotions for Ken Wheeler. Find out how his own regrettable academic career leads him to the wrong conclusions about public education and home schooling in the United States.

For most of human history, societies viewed formal education as a privilege rather than a right. If your father was the king’s personal physician, like Aristotle, you could go to the Academy and have Plato as your professor.

If you were an everyday pleb, like 99% of the populace, you’d pick up as much as you could from your parents and older siblings and hope for the best. That’s why so many people in the ancient world ended up with the same job as their parents, whether it suited them or not.

Home schooling as the norm back then could be okay with the right parents, but not usually. A good example is a letter one of my own pioneer ancestors sent back to relatives in her native Scotland. She writes, “there is no school here for the children, so we have to learn them ourselves.”

Cultures that Valued Universal Education Early On Excelled

Cultures that valued universal education early on excelled. For example, Scots and Jews were overrepresented among the wealthy, scholarly and successful because even people of modest means received a basic education within their societies.

Universal, compulsory education finally emerged in the United States in the early 20th century. Governments viewed it as essential for two main reasons. America needed an educated electorate for democracy to function, and it needed a skilled workforce to compete with its rivals in international trade.

Public education ensured that teachers were certified and accountable for what they taught. It also established standard curricula that elected school boards could at least try to match to local socioeconomic needs.

Public Education Provides Equality of Opportunity

As we’ve seen, public education also provided equality of opportunity. When everyone gained the same standard body of knowledge in school, priviledged kids like Aristotle no longer had any advantage over others.

Ken Wheeler didn’t get along in school. He tells his viewers that “of all the horrible things that have happened to me in life, public school was easily the worst.”

With characteristic intellectual humility, he explains his unhappy academic career this way. “I had the the gift of wisdom and insight to know these teachers were all fools. I didn’t listen to them, I didn’t obey them. I knew I was smarter than them, and still am, of course”

“Angry/Irritable Mood, Argumentative, Defiant Behavior”

The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-5) identifies an interesting childhood condition. It’s called Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). They define it as, “a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness.” Readers can decide for themselves to whom this description might apply.

The Angry Photographer goes on to explain, “You know, I didn’t disrupt the class or anything. There were a few times when I told the teacher ‘you’re a fool, this is just not true.'” The DSM-5 explains that ODD is different from other behavioural issues in that, while children with the disorder are argumentative and insolent, they’re rarely physically aggressive or inclined to lie or steal.

Demanding an impossible standard of proof for the value of public education, the Angry Photographer declares that schools teach “filth and nonsense to their kids.” He explains that he has “no love for teachers because most of them can’t teach, they don’t know anything, they don’t care about their job.”

Would Like to See America Return to Home Schooling

The YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis would like to see America return to the days where home schooling was the norm. The logical fallacy with this argument is that home schooling in the 21st century has all the same shortcomings it had in the 19th.

There’s more to being an educator than reading textbooks to your kids or having them watch videos. Teachers use their experience to offer professional guidance to ensure children master the skills they need through tailored homework, lessons, testing and projects.

Most children perform better academically in school than at home because their peers influence them. Social stimulus from other kids boosts their IQ, and a bit of healthy competition motivates them to perform better in a formal classroom than in a family setting.

Classroom Environment More Stimulating for Most Kids

Children find home schooling tedious and being cooped up at home all day makes them restless. Spending all their time inside the home often leads to depression and obesity. A classroom environment is much more stimulating for most kids.

Home schooling involves more screen time than classroom education. In addition to the mental issues this entails, it’s very bad for a child’s eyesight.

Home schooled children don’t interact with peers outside their family. This leads to poor social skills and a less well-rounded personality.

Home Schooled Children Are More Likely to Be Bullied

Home schooled children are more likely to be bullied. They have fewer opportunities to socialize and don’t have school friends to support them. Neighbourhood children outside their own families view them as outsiders.

The main concern though, is that very few parents are equipped to be teachers. They don’t have the training, the time or the resources to take on the role of a professional educator. As a result of all these shortcomings, most home schooled kids aren’t well prepared for college or for the workplace.

Very Few Parents Are Equipped to Be Teachers

Parents who home school often make grave mistakes that harm their children’s development. Academic performance suffers as a result. There’s a very good reason why only about 3% of American families home school their children even though it’s perfectly legal.

Cherry-picking based on anecdotal evidence, Kentucky Ken insists that he’s never heard of a problem child who was home schooled. The truth is that a growing number of home schooled children have grown up to become violent criminals and even mass murderers.

They include Adam Lanza, the school shooter who killed twenty children and six adults at Sandy Hook. Chevie Kehoe and his brother Cheyne, two of America’s most infamous white supremacists, were also home schooled. So was Alaska’s notorious serial killer Israel Keyes who confessed to eight murders and whom police suspect was guilty of several more.

Sandy Hook Shooter, Alaska Serial Killer: Home Schooled

None of this proves that home schooling is a breeding ground for criminals. However, it does strongly refute Kentucky Ken’s claim that home schooled kids never grow up to be problem adults.

Money is one of Ken Wheeler’s perennial preoccupations. In terms of education, he declares “I pay property taxes. I think I pay too much in property taxes and most of my property tax bill goes to these rotten, little, evil, hell-holes that we call the public school system.”

The Angry Photographer has no children, so his perception of the education system comes from pronouncements from fake education experts. However, if he did, have kids, and he chose to home school them, he’d be shelling out thousands of dollars more in personal expenses over and above what he pays in school tax.

Penny Wise and Pound Foolish about Education Tax

These costs include textbooks, materials, field trips and extracurricular activities. As always, the Theoria Apophasis host is being penny wise and pound foolish.

Ken Wheeler also had a regrettable college experience. He describes it as a “total waste.” He claims to have spent “years in college.” The truth is, he spent just two years studying Russian at the University of Kentucky in his hometown of Lexington and didn’t graduate.

He tells his audience that the university’s only worthwhile resource was the library. He reports spending most of his college days in it, rather than doing his assignments or socializing with any of his peers.

“I Spent Enormous Amounts of Time” in the Library

“I spent enormous amounts of time there,” he says, “Quickly finding the really, really good stuff and being self-taught in a superior education.” As part of this process, the Angry Photographer dabbled in the philosophy of Plato.

It’s beyond ironic that someone who identifies as a platonist would also boast about being self-taught. Plato was strongly against learning independently from books.

He believed that books had their place as a pastime for scholars or to leave a legacy as teachers’ lives drew to a close. However, he thought they were no substitute for lectures because, as he put it in his Protagorus dialogue, books “can neither answer nor ask.”

Plato: “Writings Are but a Reminiscence of What We Know”

In his dialogue the Phaedrus, Plato went further, saying “that even the best of writings are but a reminiscence of what we know, and that only in principle of justice and goodness and nobility taught and communicated for the sake of instruction and graven in the soul, which is the true way of writing, is there clearness and perfection and seriousness.”

Plato established the first academic insitution, The Academy, because of his passionate commitment to classroom instruction over self-directed book-learning. There’s an old saying that “every self-taught man had a fool for a teacher.”

The Angry Photographer accuses formally educated people of being part of a vast conspiracy in almost every video. It seems to derive from the social dysfunction he endured during his own school years.

Many of Us Lived Through Similar Diffriculties

Many of us lived through similar difficulties, especially if we went to school before teachers learned to identify and address learning challenges like ODD and take bullying seriously. The Theoria Apophasis host is entitled to our compassion for his crushing experiences.

Even so, he’s not entitled to resent those who had meaningful and rewarding academic and professional careers merely because he didn’t benefit from the same experience.

Ken’s Evidence
Public Schools are the problem
9 Conspicuous Reasons Why Homeschooling Is Bad for Children
Homeschool Homicide Database

Climate – Why Ken’s Wrong

Climate science is another theme on which Ken Wheeler weighs in from time to time. Find out why his baseless climate denial is something about which we no longer have time to argue.

Climate change is the term scientists use to describe long-term shifts in weather patterns and atmospheric temperatures. Historically, most of these shifts were natural, usually because of changes in the sun’s natural cycles.

That started to change in the early 19th century. With the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, humanity started burning coal.

Before long, we discovered Earth’s vast petroleum reserves and also found ways to use them to fuel our vehicles. Natural gas soon followed as an economical way to generate electricity and heat our buildings.

We Call These Energy Sources Fossil Fuels

We’ve started calling these energy sources fossil fuels. This is partly because they’re the remains of ancient life forms, and partly because humanity needs to move away from them for ecological and economic reasons.

When we burn fossil fuels, we emit gases that trap heat in Earth’s atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide and methane. This raises the average surface temperature across the globe.

This is already causing severe droughts, water shortages, wildfires, rising sea levels, catastrophic floods, melting polar ice caps, disastrous storms and mass extinction. If it continues unabated, the climate crisis will cause massive human health risks, forced displacements, widespread famines and even more severe pandemics.

Scientists Agree Climate Crisis is Caused by Humans

Practically all reputable climate scientists agree with these conclusions. For decades the expert consensus has been that climate change is a crisis caused by human activity.

Ken Wheeler denies all these established scientific facts as part of a global conspiracy. While demanding impossible standards of proof from climate scientists, he offers his own demonstrably false notions about rising C02 levels and climate change.

The Angry Photographer assures his audience that “Mother Nature loves C02.” Hearkening back to his Grade 6 science lessons, he reminds us that plants absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis.

Plants Need Temperature, Moisture More than C02

As any gardener or farmer will tell you, C02 is the least of their worries in getting plants to grow. Light, temperature and moisture are vastly more important to keeping plants healthy than how much carbon dioxide there is in the air.

Rising C02 levels push temperatures above optimal levels in which plants can thrive. Plants adapted to temperate zones can’t survive rapidly rising heat levels in their habitats, which is exactly what carbon emissions cause.

Droughts and fires wipe out massive ranges of plant life. Floods cause widespread erosion, which uproots and devastates plant life in a wide range of ecosystems.

Droughts and Fires Wipe Out Plant Life

The idea that higher C02 levels are good for plants comes from cherry-picking studies conducted in artificial greenhouses. When scientists look at natural environments using free-air C02 enrichment studies, the benefits of rising C02 evaporate.

Another problem with the Theoria Apophasis host’s notion that nature loves C02 is that there’s more than one kind of carbon. Different kinds of plants respond differently to different carbon isotopes.

Some plants may benefit from industrial C02 emissions, but others definitely won’t. Nobody, least of all Kentucky Ken, knows how uncontrolled fossil fuel emissions affect plant life in various habitats worldwide. We do know that excessive heat and droughts devastate plant life on a global scale.

Excessive Heat and Droughts Devastate Plant Life

Ken Wheeler also raises the point that Earth’s C02 levels were “astronomically higher” during the Jurassic period than they are today. He’s basing this claim on obsolete data.

Today’s C02 levels are just over 400 ppm. It’s hard to estimate C02 levels 200 million years ago, but scientists’ best educated guess is that they were about 600 ppm.

That’s not “astronomically higher.” Beyond that, the Angry Photographer commits a logical fallacy when he goes on to say that temperatures rose along with the elevated C02 levels during the Jurassic.

Correlation Between C02 Levels and Global Warming

These two Jurassic climate conditions demonstrate the tight correlation between C02 levels and global warming. In fact, science tells us that climate and C02 levels have always varied together as if in lockstep. They’re both lower during ice ages and they’re both higher during warm periods.

The YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis also tells us that “the entire planet was lush and super, super green” in prehistoric periods of high atmospheric C02. He doesn’t realize that this was because greenhouse gases in those periods were in balance with carbon levels in the ocean and absorption through the weathering of rocks.

This balance came from extremely gradual adjustment periods that took place over millions of years. On the other hand, when greenhouse gas levels have risen suddenly, they’ve always caused mass extinctions.

Last Decade Was the Hottest on Record

We’ve increased our artificial C02 emissions at an unprecedented rate. As a result, the last decade was the hottest on record. These rapid changes correlate with rising temperatures, rising sea levels and ocean acidification, just as they always have when C02 levels have spiked in the remote past.

Among the more tangible effects of global warming are the increasingly violent tropical storms in the Caribbean. Warmer air and sea temperatures cause more intense tropical cyclones to develop, resulting in more destructive hurricanes throughout the region.

Ironically, this climactic change has now affected Ken Wheeler personally. Hurricane Ian caused extensive damage to his vacation home in Fort Myers, Florida.

Global Warming Has Now Destroyed His Own House

Just as the Angry Photographer has contracted COVID twice due to his science denial around the pandemic, global warming has now destroyed one of his own houses. Yet, he persists in denying that the climate crisis is real and caused by human activity.

As in so many other areas on which Ken Wheeler expresses contrarian views, he has no formal training, credentials or experience related to climate science, and it shows. The consensus among climate scientists that climate change is real, caused by humans and a crisis is now effectively unanimous.

It’s hard to be certain why Ken Wheeler feels the need to deny this universal scientific consensus. He constantly complains about the price of everything, especially gasoline, so carbon pricing may have something to do with it.

Resentment Towards Anyone with a Formal Education

The Angry Photographer also displays a hostile resentment towards anyone with a formal education, especially scientists with PhDs. He’s also intensely antagonistic toward peer reviewed scientific literature viewing modern science as a vast conspiracy.

Kentucky Ken’s profound gullibility toward fake experts may also be a factor. Mitch McConnell represents his state in the US Senate. A key coal mining jurisdiction, Kentucky is one of only four US states where most residents don’t believe human activity causes climate change. He may simply be a product of his environment.

We No Longer Have Time for this Nonsense

Whatever his reasons, humanity is well beyond the point where climate denial is credible or worth debating. We no longer have time for this nonsense.

So, it’s important that we disregard Ken Wheeler’s climate denial. Mother Nature’s health and future, not to mention our own, depend on it.

Ken’s Evidence:

Nature Loves What Society Shuns
Plants Cannot Live on C02 Alone
Do High Levels of C02 in the Past Contradict the Warming Effect of C02?
Kentucky’s Climate is Changing. Will Its Politics?
Solar Panels – Why Ken’s Wrong

Artificial Intelligence – Why Ken’s Wrong

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a hot topic as our gadgets do more and more of our thinking for us. Find out why Ken Wheeler’s take on AI is preposterous speculation that proves nothing but his own lack of computing expertise.

Artificial intelligence (AI) means intelligence demonstrated by machines. It’s the opposite of natural intelligence which is intelligence displayed by humans and other animals to varying degrees.

It’s important to understand that artificial intelligence doesn’t mean machines that can reproduce things the human mind can do, like learning or solving problems.

Instead, it means the study and design of intelligent agents. That includes any kind of system that can perceive the environment around it and respond in ways that deliver an intended result.

Lots of Everyday Technology Uses Artificial Intelligence

So, lots of everyday technology uses artificial intelligence. This includes chess programs, search engines like Google, the algorithms that recommend things to us on social media, voice activated assistants like Siri and Alexa and the radar-enabled cruise control in our cars.

Artificial intelligence isn’t science fiction. It has nothing to do with conscious, self-aware supercomputers like HAL-9000 that might someday run amok and take over the world.

Ken Wheeler has his own idiosyncratic ideas about artificial intelligence. He admits that he has no background in computer science, software development or programming. In fact, he declares that “I would rather do anything in my life other than computer programming.”

“I Don’t Pretend to Be a Computer Programmer”

He goes on to say, “I don’t pretend to be a computer programmer.” Naturally, that doesn’t stop him from declaring himself a fake expert on the topic.

He claims that sentience and artificial intelligence are impossible using computers. He dismisses supercomputers as “binary machines,” and “nothing other than an ultra-complex calculator moving ones and zeros around.”

For these reasons, he declares that “we’re never going to see artificial intelligence.” He then proceeds to conflate intelligence with consciousness.

Intelligence, Sentience and Consciousness – Separate Ideas

Intelligence, sentience and consciousness are three separate ideas. As he often does with technical terms from fields in which he’s self-taught, the Angry Photographer uses these unrelated words interchangeably and incorrectly.

Intelligence in the AI field, as defined by Merriam Webster, means “the ability to perform computer functions.” Sentience is “feeling or sensation as distinguished from perception or thought.” Consciousness is “the quality or state of being aware especially of something within oneself.”

So it’s obvious that computers can perform the functions for which they’ve been programmed. On the other hand, while computers connected to cameras or microphones have a very limited kind of perception, they’re not sentient.

A Computer is Not Aware of Itself or What It’s Doing

Although a computer’s ability to process information is a rudimentary kind of thought, a computer is not aware of itself or what it’s doing. It has no consciousness.

So, while computers have intelligence, they lack sentience or consciousness. To paraphrase philosopher Thomas Nagel, there’s nothing that it’s like to be a computer, but that doesn’t mean there’s no such thing as artificial intelligence.

The Theoria Apophasis host goes on to insist that consciousness is “the consubstantiality of two things – matter and spirit.” He declares this to be “scientifically undeniable.”

Scientists Deny His “Scientifically Undeniable” Claim

Ken Wheeler doesn’t bother to mention that scientists like Richard Dawkins deny this quite vehemently. Other scientists disagree with Dawkins but it’s preposterous to try to claim that this idea can’t be denied scientifically. Many scientists deny it on a daily basis.

Here once again, he’s conflating two separate ideas. Spirit and consciousness aren’t synonyms any more than sentience and intelligence mean the same thing.

The Angry Photographer then commits one of his trademark logical fallacies. He declares that the only way a “human construct” could replicate consciousness would be by using water.

Logical Fallacies Underlie His Fascination with Water

We explain the many logical fallacies that underlie the Theoria Apophasis host’s fascination with good old H2O under Water – Why Ken’s Wrong. Here, we’ll stick to the main points for the sake of brevity.

Some, but by no means all, antennas are v-shaped. Water molecules are also v-shaped.

Based on that, Ken Wheeler has mysteriously concluded that water is an antenna. The fact that distilled water can’t conduct electromagnetic signals doesn’t seem to curb his enthusiasm for this idea.

Jumps to Conclusion that Water Acts as Spiritual Antenna

The Angry Photographer has jumped to the conclusion that water acts as an antenna connecting our spirits to our physical bodies. Since all life on Earth is water-based, this, in his mind, proves that all living things are animated by spirit via the water molecule. This supposedly works the way a radio is animated by a signal through its antenna.

The YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis goes on to argue that an inventor could produce artificial consciousness by mixing water and table salt – what doctors call a saline solution. He mentions that there are two other chemicals that would also do the trick although he says he can’t remember what they are.

Presumably Ken Wheeler is cherry-picking ideas about the various compounds that dissolve into ions that scientists call electrolytes. These include alkalis, chlorides, sulphides and carbonate compounds. There are far more than three of them, but that’s a separate discussion.

Glass Jar Around the Size of a Human Head With Saltwater

The Angry Photographer describes his proposed device as a glass jar around the size of a human head filled with saltwater, with input and output terminals. A “holographic processor matrix” suspended in the salty water would spontaneously generate “holographic information.”

The reason for this manifestation of consciousness supposedly has to do with the v-shape of water molecules. Kentucky Ken explains that this happens due to “the actual holography of perfect incommensurability that exists in the geometry of the molecule itself.”

That’s quite a mouthful of word salad. Translating it into English, Ken Wheeler is arguing that because a water molecule is the same shape as the rabbit ears on an old-school television set, it’s a kind of spiritual aerial through which consciousness would emerge spontaneously.

Says Our Brains Are a Water-Based “Holographic Matrix”

The Angry Photographer explains that our brains are a water-based “holographic matrix.” Somehow his bucket of salty water, or perhaps electrolyte-rich Gatorade (my sarcastic suggestion, not his!), will be able to replicate the hitherto inexplicable phenomenon of the human brain, which scientists have called the most complex object in the known universe.

Demanding an impossible standard of proof, the Theoria Apophasis host tells his audience that, “I don’t know of anybody on Earth that is attempting to submerge a processor matrix into a saline water solution.” There’s a reason for that. The entire notion is preposterous.

How is Ken Wheeler wrong about all this? Let me count the ways.

Consciousness and Intelligence Are Two Separate Things

Consciousness and intelligence are two separate things. Artificial intelligence is under no obligation to replicate human consciousness in order to accomplish useful things.

Scientists don’t agree that consciousness emerges from a metaphysical entity called spirit. The Angry Photography offers no evidence supporting the notion that consciousness is equivalent to spirit or vice versa.

The mere fact that a water molecule is shaped like a “v” doesn’t prove that it functions as an antenna. The shape of an antenna is a function of the wavelength of the signal its designers want to capture, and most antennas aren’t v-shaped.

If Device Could Work, Scientists Would Have Build It

If a device as simple as the one the Theoria Apophasis host proposes could work, scientists would have built it decades ago. They haven’t, because it couldn’t. That’s also why Kentucky Ken hasn’t built one himself.

Ken Wheeler tells his followers, “I spend time thinking about a lot of different stuff. Stuff that a lot of people don’t think about.” As we can see, some additional intelligence, whether natural or artificial, would probably help him with these thought processes.

Better yet, instead of trying to teach himself artificial intelligence, the Angry Photographer would be better advised to discuss the topic with legitimate experts in the field. Unfortunately, that’s unlikely to happen since Kentucky Ken would have to concede that someone knew more about a subject than he does and he views modern science as a vast conspiracy to deny the truth.

Ken’s Evidence

Real Artificial Intelligence premise How To
Artificial Intelligence
Water – Why Ken’s Wrong
What Is Consciousness?

Trudeau – Why Ken’s Wrong

Justine Castro” is Ken Wheeler’s new nickname for Canada’s prime minister. Find out why this nickname comes from rumours that are inaccurate as well as logistically and biologically impossible.

Pierre Elliot Trudeau was probably the most charismatic prime minister that Canada ever had. Mind you, he hasn’t had much competition.

Canadians of a certain age vividly remember how he captured the country’s imagination in 1968 – a phenomenon called Trudeaumania. One of the most captivating events of those years was the 52-year-old bachelor’s marriage to 23-year-old Vancouver socialite, Margaret Sinclair.

The couple married secretly on March 4, 1971. They took a one-week honeymoon at the Whistler ski resort and then headed to Ottawa on March 8.

Justin Trudeau Was Born on December 25, 1971

Margaret moved into the official Prime Minister’s Residence at 24 Sussex Drive immediately after the honeymoon. Their first son, Justin Trudeau was born on December 25, 1971 – Christmas Day. This was a major media event across Canada that charmed the whole country.

This means that the couple conceived Justin sometime between March 16 and April 22, 1971. Why this matters will become clear in a moment.

Relying on reports from fake experts on Canadian politics, Ken Wheeler has been commenting in support of the anti-vaccine protests in Canada recently. During those videos, he has taken to referring to Canada’s prime minister as “Justine Castro.”

Childish Feminization of Prime Minister’s First Name

Presumably, Kentucky Ken intends this childish feminization of the Prime Minister’s first name to imply that he’s not manly enough. He may have come across a bizarre conspiracy theory on the dark web that Justin Trudeau is transgendered.

As we’ve seen, Justin Trudeau’s birth was a nationwide news event. It would have been impossible for his parents to hide his gender in those circumstances.

As the first son of Canada’s prime minister, Justin Trudeau grew up in the media spotlight. He has clearly identified as male from the day of his birth.

Clearly Identified as Male From the Day of His Birth

Throughout his adult life, Justin Trudeau has been recognized as a tall, handsome man. He inherited his fine features and luxuriant dark, wavy hair, but not his gender, from his glamorous mother.

The Angry Photographer may have other reasons for his childish “Justine” moniker. If so, apparently he’s unaware that Justin Trudeau is an expert amateur boxer and has a black belt in judo.

Canada’s head of government is also an avid outdoorsman. He’s an experienced canoeist, rock climber, and snowboarder.

Devoted Family Man Who Has Fathered Three Children

Justin Trudeau is also a devoted family man who has fathered three children. That’s not biologically possible for a trans man. He’s been happily married to Sophie Gregoire for seventeen years.

So, one really has to wonder where Ken Wheeler gets the idea that Justin Trudeau is effeminate, warranting the Justine Castro moniker. Certainly, nothing in his personal life suggests that.

Now, let’s talk about the “Castro” part. This appears to be an allusion to other bizarre rumours that Justin Trudeau is the biological son of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. The main reason this urban legend is preposterous is that Justin Trudeau was born in 1971, while his mother met Fidel Castro for the first time in 1976.

Born in 1971, Mother Met Castro for the First Time in 1976

One might think that this timeline alone would put this urban legend to rest. Beyond that, the 1976 encounter was an official visit between her husband and the Cuban leader. She merely accompanied the Canadian prime minister, and there’s no evidence of any personal friendship between Margaret Trudeau and Castro.

However, rumours are stubborn things. Cherry-picking dates from fifty-year-old travel itineraries, conspiracists now maintain that Castro impregnated Margaret Trudeau during the Trudeaus’ Caribbean trip in April 1971.

The couple visited Barbados, Tobago, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad. They didn’t visit Cuba, which is where Castro remained throughout this period.

Impossible for Justin Trudeau to be Child of Fidel Castro

So, despite the label Justine Castro, it’s a logical fallacy and logistical impossibility that Justin Trudeau could conceivably (pun intended) be the illegitimate child of Fidel Castro. Grasping at straws, and demanding an impossible standard of proof, conspiracists have pointed out that Justin Trudeau doesn’t look much like Pierre Trudeau.

The problem with that argument is that, as mentioned above, Justin Trudeau is the spitting image of his stylish mother. He doesn’t look much like Fidel Castro either.

So, as always, Ken Wheeler is completely misinformed on this point. He may realize that the rumours are baseless, which could be why he only alludes to them by using the puerile Justine Castro nickname.

Epic Gullibility – Demonstrably False Notion

It’s equally possible that the Theoria Apophasis host’s epic gullibility has made him fall for two more demonstrably false notions. In either case, as always, he doesn’t have the first clue what he’s talking about.

One also has to ask how these rumours would be relevant to current events, even if they were true. They’re not.

Ken’s Sources:
CANADA! What the heck! NUTS!
Is Justin Trudeau Fidel Castro’s Love Child?
PM Pierre Trudeau marries Margaret Sinclair

Magic – Why Ken’s Wrong

Ken Wheeler tells us that focusing our attention on icons and talismans magically attracts evil spirits. Find out why science debunks this notion and why it would take a lot more than magic to make it stick.

In his classic work, Man and His Symbols, Carl Jung writes, “Man uses the spoken or written word to express the meaning of what he wants to convey. His language is full of symbols, but also often employs signs or images that are not strictly descriptive.”

Jung defines a symbol as a familiar word, name, or picture that also “possesses specific connotations in addition to its conventional or obvious meaning.” There’s something hidden, vague or unexplained about our symbols.

There are countless abstract concepts that come to our minds, and we use symbols to express them. Symbols are also a convenient shorthand (the fancy word is hermeneutic) that allow us to express an elaborate idea with just a phrase or a picture.

Symbols Are Central to Human Culture

Symbols are central to human culture. They play a crucial role in our progress as a species, and without them we’d probably still be living in the Stone Age.

None of this sits well with Ken Wheeler. He looks upon symbols as “talismans” and “icons,” and views them as part of “the genuine magic of true metaphysics.” He seems to have arrived at this conclusion by stumbling on the magical thinking embraced by the philosopher Iamblicus as part of his superstitious medieval practice called theurgy.

The Angry Photographer clings to an odd double standard. He rejects and ridicules what he calls “woo-woo and whackadoodle nonsense” like crystals, Bigfoot, and unicorns, while promoting his beliefs in theurgy, ghosts, the ether, dowsing, and other paranormal phenomena as “undeniably true.”

Calls Icon and Talisman Effect “Magic by Any Definition”

According to the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis, icons and talismans can “bend the will of millions of people.” He argues that this supposed effect is “magic by any definition.”

For example, Ken Wheeler believes in Ouija boards. He’s quick to clarify that he doesn’t believe the board or the planchette (pointing device) possess intrinsic magical powers.

Instead, the Angry Photographer argues that the Ouija board is a type of talisman. By providing us with a point of focus, it can evoke evil spirits and wreak havoc.

Says Ouija Boards Invoke Evil Spirits and Wreak Havoc

As evidence, the Theoria Apophasis host tells a story about a house in Missouri in which, according to him, a boy with a Ouija board created a “portal to disembodied beings.” The Angry Photographer says that the house, which he claims inspired the movie The Exorcist, was inundated with evil spirits and remains haunted to this very day.

As always, Ken Wheeler doesn’t have his facts straight. The urban legend to which he’s referring supposedly took place in Cottage City, Maryland, near Washington, D.C., and not in Missouri.

Although the troubled boy spent some time in St. Louis, Missouri, mainly for treatment at St. Louis University, nobody claims anything supernatural took place in the house where he stayed in that city. All the relevant incidents took place in Maryland or at the university.

Homeowners Had No “Encounters with the Supernatural”

As for that Maryland house, a couple purchased it recently for a bargain price due to its reputation among gullible people. Speaking to The Washingtonian, they report absolutely no “encounters with the supernatural,” and they view the story behind their home with humour. It’s not “haunted to this day” as Ken Wheeler insists.

So much for Ouija boards. The Angry Photographer also leads us all the way back to ancient Egypt to try to make his point about iconography.

According to the Theoria Apophasis creator, Egyptian hieroglyphs represent the “metaphysical iconography of the priest class” in that culture. He insists that everyday Egyptians didn’t use the hieroglyphic language.

Insists Everyday Egyptians Didn’t Use Hieroglyphs

Since virtually no one other than professional scribes could write in the ancient world, we’d have to concede that ordinary Egyptians didn’t write with hieroglyphs. Being illiterate, they didn’t write at all.

Even so, Ken Wheeler is wrong about Egyptian hieroglyphs. These characters originally expressed the common language of the Egyptian people.

Some hieroglyphic characters are simple pictures of the object they represent. Others represent sounds, exactly like the letters of our alphabet, and a third type of character clarifies the meaning of the character beside it.

Hieroglyphs Were Written Language of Business in Egypt

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the first de facto written language of business in early Ancient Egypt. They weren’t some esoteric mystery language depicting talismanic symbols for worship by religious priests and clerics.

The Angry Photographer seems to have picked up this mistaken belief by reading neoplatonists from the Middle Ages. They were under the mistaken impression that Egyptian hieroglyphs were artistic representations of esoteric ideas. The discovery of the Rosetta Stone, which announced the same political decree in hieroglyphs, a more modern language called Demotic, and Greek, for every literate person to read, falsified this hypothesis.

The Theoria Apophasis host also points to Nazi iconography as evidence for his notion of metaphysical magic. In particular, he mentions that the swastika is a “Buddhist standard for the solar absolute.”

Nothing Specifically Buddhist About a Swastika

There’s nothing specifically Buddhist about a swastika. The symbol is more than 7,000 years old, and has turned up in the ruins of Troy and in prehistoric Germany.

The same symbol can mean completely different things in different cultural contexts. The swastika is now the ultimate symbol of evil in the modern western world, while Asians still consider it a symbol of good luck. They proudly display it at Diwali, their Festival of Light, for example.

The word “swastika” comes from the Sanskrit “svastika,” which means “well-being.” Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, and Odinists all use this symbol throughout Eurasia. One wonders why Ken Wheeler wants to pin a swastika on the Buddhists, although he bitterly disagrees with them about Buddhist souls.

Claims Swastika is Another Form of Talisman

The YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis claims that the swastika is another form of talisman. He believes that the swastika became a “point of focus” for Germans in the 1930s, causing the Second World War and the Holocaust. All because people thought a bent cross looked intriguing?

Ken Wheeler takes this simplistic explanation for World War II even further. He makes the death-defying leap of logic that “all wars are spiritual wars.”

Social scientists tell us that wars take place because every nation has a basic need for security, and there is no global institution to ensure it for them. This need for national security manifests itself in many ways.

Causes of War Have Nothing to Do With Spirits or Talismans

Manifestations can include territorial and economic gain, sectarianism, nationalism, revenge, revolution, and pre-emptive war, among others. None of these causes of war have anything to do with spirits, symbols, icons, or talismans. They stem from conflicting national security interests.

Drawing on theurgy’s emphasis on charms and divination, Ken Wheeler also believes in water witching or dowsing. That’s the practice of using a forked stick or a pair of L-shaped wires to decide where to dig a well.

In most places where agriculture is practical, there are aquifers underneath virtually any piece of ground you choose. Scientific studies show that dowsers fare no better than random chance at finding these groundwater sources.

Claims Dowsing Rods Magically Help Us Find Water Deposits

The Angry Photographer maintains that, although dowsing rods themselves contain no magic, they’re yet another kind of talisman. Water witchers use them as a point of focus, magically enabling them to sense subsurface water deposits.

This “magic” offers no advantage over simply guessing. So, the simplest explanation that covers all the facts is there’s no magic involved in the dowsing process, just blind luck.

The Theoria Apophasis host even goes so far as to claim that Christian iconography is subject to the same magical effect. He cites 2 Corinthians 4:4, and Colossians 1:15 as proof.

As Always, Ken Wheeler is Misinterpreting Scripture

As always, Ken Wheeler is misinterpreting scripture. These two passages simply refer to Jesus as the image of God. Paul and other early Christians shunned magicians and followed the Second Commandment’s prohibition against creating graven images, such as talismans.

Yet, there’s something even more peculiar about the Angry Photographer’s aversion to talismans. He goes on to single out corporate trademarks as examples of icons, suggesting that they too attract evil spirits.

He asserts, incorrectly, that sewing machine manufacturer the Singer Company went bankrupt at some point and that a Chinese company spent a fortune to buy their iconic brand. The truth is that the Singer Company Limited remains an American-owned, going concern based just outside Nashville in La Vergne, Tennessee.

Calls Corporate Trademarks Evil, Has Nikon Tattoo

Kentucky Ken’s aversion to corporate trademarks is odd given that he has a Nikon logo tattoo. Has this iconic trademark overpowered him, causing his hostile and irrational reviews of photography gear?

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) provides a more likely explanation. DSM-5 defines “magical thinking” as “The erroneous belief that one’s thoughts, words, or actions will cause or prevent a specific outcome in some way that defies commonly understood laws of cause and effect.”

Psychiatrists tell us that magical thinking is a common feature of delusions, including those resulting from “Delusional Disorder, Grandiose Type.” As noted under Who’s Ken Wheeler?, this diagnosis “applies when the central theme of the delusion is the conviction of having some great (but unrecognized) talent or insight or having made some important discovery.”

DSM-5 Calls Magical Thinking Delusional

Believing that one has gifted insight into how icons and talismans connect us with the spirit world seems consistent with this guideline. The fact that delusions of grandeur often have a form of religious content seems like a clincher.

There’s nothing magical or diabolical about our use of symbols. They’re simply the way we express meaning to one another.

Focusing on a Symbol Doesn’t Attract Evil Spirits

Focusing on a symbol doesn’t attract evil spirits or lead us down the wrong path. Without our symbols, our civilization would collapse.

It’s going to take a lot more than magic for Ken Wheeler to make any of these unsubstantiated claims stick.

Ken’s Evidence

Metaphysics of Ikons and Talismans
Honey, We Bought the Exorcist House!
Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs
Dowsing: The Pseudoscience of Water Witching
The Origin of the Swastika
Singer Company Limited
Magical Thinking: Causes Functions and Examples

Ghosts – Why Ken’s Wrong

“Disembodied spirits” are part of Ken Wheeler’s metaphysical mythology on the immortal soul. Find out why his efforts to convince viewers to believe in spooks don’t have a ghost of a chance.

People have believed in ghosts since time immemorial. Intuitively, we all seem to feel as if we have a dual nature.

We clearly have a physical body, but we sense that the part of us that thinks and perceives is separate from that. As a result, we’re inclined to speculate that we have a spirit, or soul.

Philosophers call this view “dualism.” Most of us have the impression that we are, as Rene Descartes put it, “ghosts in the machine,” or “spirits in the material world.” as the band The Police famously sang.

“Ghosts in the Machine” or “Spirits in the Material World”

It’s not an enormous leap of logic to assume that our spirits could roam the earth without our bodies. Why couldn’t a spirit decide to remain on Earth after we die instead of moving on to the Great Beyond?

There are two problems with this view about hauntings. First, most ghost stories entail ghosts doing physically impossible things, and second, as scientific paranormal investigator Benjamin Radford explains, whenever scientists apply the scientific method to look for ghosts, they never find any facts or evidence to confirm reported apparitions.

Unsurprisingly, Ken Wheeler vehemently disputes this view. He not only insists that ghosts must exist, but claims to have seen a ghost and to have felt the chilling effect of specters multiple times.

Claims to Have Seen a Ghost and Felt Its Chilling Effect

The Angry Photographer bases these extraordinary claims largely on the fact that we all have dreams. According to him, since we can see, hear and feel things in our dreams, that proves that our soul can create its own body at will.

As we all know, all of our sensory perceptions take place in our brains. So, it’s a logical fallacy that an unconscious brain would need to create some sort of ethereal body in which to roam about in its dreams.

The Theoria Apophasis host gets around these kinds of objections by appealing to metaphysics. He dodges any need to provide a realistic explanation for what he prefers to call “disembodied beings” by declaring that metaphysical entities are by nature not demonstrable.

Says Metaphysical Entities Are Not Demonstrable by Nature

Ken Wheeler also rationalizes his belief in disembodied beings based on an old saw, his “not perfect but nearly perfect” radio analogy. We also debunk the radio analogy in two other ways under Buddhist Souls – Why Ken’s Wrong and Metaphysics – Why Ken’s Wrong.

Here, we’ll examine the logical fallacy of this radio analogy from another point of view. According to the Angry Photographer, the consubstantial union of our body and soul corresponds to a radio broadcast being the combined result of the signal and the receiver.

He seems to have appropriated the term “consubstantial” from Christian theology. The word comes from the Greek word homoousios, which applies only to the Trinity and not to everyday people or their ghosts.

“Consubstantial” Applies to Christ, Not Everyday People

Leaving semantics aside, the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis points out that the radio signal carries on even if the radio breaks down. He infers from this that our soul carries on after we die.

The difficulty with this analogy in this context is that without a receiver, the signal is imperceptible to us. There’s no way for us to perceive the broadcast without our receiver.

So, by analogy, since we can’t perceive immaterial, metaphysical things, there’s no way for us to experience a disembodied spirit. By Ken Wheeler’s own logic, they’re not physically demonstrable.

“Arguments by Similarities Are Imposters” – Plato

Analogies are not logical proofs. As the Angry Photographer’s hero Plato put it, “Arguments that make their point by means of similarities are impostors, and, unless you are on your guard against them, will quite readily deceive you.”

Cherry-picking from various fringe televisions programs, Ken Wheeler points to so-called ghost-hunting technology as further evidence for disembodied spirits. He concedes that some of the fake experts using this equipment on TV are hoaxers, but maintains that, overall, the gadgetry provides undeniable proof that ghosts exist.

Scientists say these results are merely unexpected noise, images, or signals, but Kentucky Ken dismisses modern science as a vast conspiracy. Even so, there are simpler explanations for these so-called “traces” than disembodied spirits.

Simpler Explanations that Cover All the Facts

The Angry Photographer’s reference to dreams doesn’t miss the mark entirely. There is a connection between the experience of perceiving a ghost and dreaming.

There’s a fairly common medical condition called “sleep paralysis.” It happens when our brains mishandle how we fall asleep or wake up.

When we have our most vivid dreams, our bodies become paralyzed to keep us from sleepwalking or kicking our mates. Some of us wake up while we’re still paralyzed.

Sleep Paralysis Causes Hallucinations

When this happens, it feels like”dreaming with your eyes open,” neuroscientist Baland Jalal told Science News. This accounts for most cases of hallucinations, including perceiving disembodied spirits.

As David Smailes et al found in a 2019 study, we can also have hallucinations for other reasons, even without doing drugs. Maybe you’ve felt your phone vibrating when it wasn’t, or heard someone call your name when there was nobody there.

Strictly speaking, these minor misperceptions are also mild forms of hallucinations. We all have them, and we’re all vulnerable to more elaborate figments of the imagination.

Impose Explanations Onto Our Misperceptions

Our first instinct when we hallucinate is to trust our senses. So, we tend to impose explanations like ghost stories onto our misperceptions rather than realizing that we’re imagining things.

Andrews and Tyson found in a 2019 study that the more intelligent we are, the less likely we are to believe in paranormal phenomena like ghosts. For example, university students with high grades are less likely to believe in ghosts than their peers. Readers can draw their own conclusions from this data.

Ken Wheeler’s fascination with ghosts stems from his ongoing preoccupation with the reality of his own death. As Tolstoy wrote, “a person who is afraid of death is one who has not lived his life properly and has broken the law of life.”

Reassure Himself He’s Not Really Going to Die

Being able to perceive ghosts comforts the Angry Photographer because it proves that we have an immortal soul. That comforting belief enables him to reassure himself that he’s not really going to die. As he’s fond of saying, “what makes you think that you are that which dies?”

To that end, the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis incorporates his pseudoscientific claims into his explanation for disembodied spirits. He explains that ghosts reside in the “dielectric realm of counter space.”

Counter space is a Ken Wheeler jargon phrase. It’s not a scientific or metaphysical term, and it originated with an esoteric fringe philosopher and fake expert named Rudolf Steiner before essentially dying out due to lack of evidence.

Michelson Morley Experiment Proved Ether Doesn’t Exist

In the mind of the YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis, counter space is loosely commingled with the ether. As we explain under Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong, back in 1887, the Michelson Morley experiment proved conclusively that the ether doesn’t exist. Charles Proteus Steinmetz, who Kentucky Ken calls one of the “gods” of field theory, called the ether hypothesis a “mistake.” Since the ether doesn’t exist, neither does counter space as the YouTuber Planarwalk has demonstrated.

Despite this, Ken Wheeler asserts that his disembodied spirits generate ethereal bodies consisting of a “counter spatial anode” due to “torsional induction.” He seems to have cooked up this conjecture from the fact that the lead acid batteries in his solar arrays have two electrodes – an anode and a cathode.

When the current flows, as the anode warms, so the cathode cools. The Angry Photographer leaves the logical steps between this observation and ghosts giving him the chills to our imaginations. This is another reminder that, as Albert Einstein put it, “If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it.”

“If You Can’t Explain It Simply, You Don’t Understand It”

Setting an impossible standard of proof, the Theoria Apophasis creator ridicules ghost chasers who say poltergeists drain their gear’s batteries. Apparently, disembodied spirits have their own circuitry and can’t draw current from nearby devices. If only he recognized the gaping holes in his own odd claims.

Ken Wheeler’s peculiar notions go beyond believing he’s seen a a ghost. He also claims to have had several near-death experiences. Having engaged in extreme sports like skydiving and cave diving, he reports having come so close to death that his spirit left his body.

As we know from people who drink too much or have brain injuries or dementia, if an experience isn’t encoded in our physical brains, we can’t recall it later. So, the Angry Photographer couldn’t recall any so-called “experience” he may have had while his spirit was detached from his body, just as people are unable to recall supposed “past lives.”

Claims to Have Experienced “Remote Viewing”

The YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis also claims to have experienced “remote viewing,” being able to observe something outside one’s field of view or at a great distance. Once again, anything his spirit might have observed while no longer tethered to the body wouldn’t be recorded in his brain, making it impossible to remember.

It’s hilarious that Kentucky Ken mocks belief in vampires, crystals, Bigfoot and unicorns. He refuses to be part of what he considers the “occult” or “new age” conspiracies, yet he can’t explain how his own odd, paranormal, lunatic fringe notions make more sense than other superstitions.

Occult Nonsense to Rationalize Spectral Suppositions

Ken Wheeler is entitled to believe anything he likes about his supposed “disembodied spirits.” Yet, that doesn’t give him a license to concoct occult nonsense to rationalize his spectral suppositions.

The Angry Photographer should stick to his story that we can’t prove metaphysical claims with facts. His pseudoscientific bafflegab doesn’t have a ghost of a chance of convincing anybody.

Ken’s Evidence

The Metaphysics of Disembodied Beings
The Science of Ghosts
The Science (and Non-Science) of Ghosts
Metaphysics – Why Ken’s Wrong
Buddhist Souls – Why Ken’s Wrong
Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong
Counterspace Word Salad

Electricity – Why Ken’s Wrong

Electricity has been a challenge for scientists to explain and harness for millennia. Find out how none of that deters Ken Wheeler from inventing his own, completely inaccurate misconception of how electrical charge and current work.

Science defines electricity as a series of physical phenomena related to electric charge and how that charge affects matter. People have experienced electricity from time immemorial.

The ancient Egyptians often came across electric fish in the Nile. From the dawn of civilization, people seem to have known that rubbing fur and amber together causes static cling.

In fact, the word “electricity” comes from the Greek word elektron, which means amber. Of course, when most of us think of the word “electron,” we’re thinking of the elementary particle with the same name.

Electric Charge Comes from Subatomic Particles

Electric charge comes from electron and proton particles. Scientists call the electron’s charge “negative” and the proton’s charge “positive,” but that’s just a convention. The important thing is, they’re opposites, and opposites attract.

Physicists call the movement of electric charge through matter “electric current.” Current usually consists of electrons, but sometimes it can be a flow of other charged particles.

Electrons can flow through some substances called conductors like copper or gold. They can’t flow through other substances called insulators, like glass. Substances like silicon fall in between conducting and insulating, and we call them semiconductors.

Ken Wheeler Doesn’t Believe Electrons Exist

Ken Wheeler doesn’t like any of these ideas one bit. The reason he gives is that they involve electrons, which he claims don’t exist.

The Angry Photographer insists that electricity is “the ether in a state of dynamic polarization.” According to him, “the motions and strains of the ether give rise to electrification.”

In his document entitled Fields the creator of Theoria Apophasis tells us that “The two components of the electric field are the magnetic & the dielectric. Electricity is a compound cyclic field modality composed of both components of the primordial conjugate fields.”

Electric Charge Produces Electric Fields, Not Polarized Ether

The truth is that electric charge produces electric fields. As we’ve seen, charge is either positive or negative.

When electric charge flows through matter, we call that an electric current. Electric current consists of moving electrons or other charged particles, and it also generates a magnetic field around the conductor.

As explained under Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong, back in 1887, Michelson and Morley found that the ether doesn’t exist. Charles Proteus Steinmetz, who Kentucky Ken calls one of the “gods” of field theory, called the ether hypothesis a “mistake.” The YouTuber Planarwalk also discusses this. It’s a logical fallacy to claim that something that isn’t there becomes polarized.

“Field Modality of Dielectricity and Magnetism”

The YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis also claims that electricity is “the consubstantial field modality of dielectricity and magnetism.” By “field modality,” he’s referring to his own idiosyncratic definition of a “field” as an “ether perturbation modality.”

Since the ether doesn’t exist, there’s no way for it to undergo a disturbance or perturbation. By “modality” Ken Wheeler means various forms of the same phenomenon, like ice, water and steam but again, something that doesn’t exist also can’t have modalities.

There’s no question that the electricity we depend on comes from the negatively charged, elementary particles we call electrons. J.J. Thomson discovered electrons in the same year as Michelson and Morley’s experiment. He was studying cathode rays – the rays that drive old-school TV picture tubes, for example.

Thompson Discovered Electrons Had Both Charge and Mass

Thomson found that these rays weren’t waves, atoms, or molecules. Instead, they were unique particles, that scientists came to call electrons, with both a charge and a mass. This discovery won him the Nobel Prize.

Scientists have confirmed Thomson’s discovery in many ways over the century that’s passed since then. Niels Bohr explained how electrons reside within atoms in 1913, and in 1916, Gilbert Newton Lewis explained how chemical bonds result from atoms sharing electrons.

In 2008, scientists at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering in Sweden captured an electron on film for the first time, as shown in the featured image above. The electron was riding on a light wave after having been pulled away from an atom, confirming the photoelectric effect discovered by Einstein in 1905, for which he too won the Nobel Prize.

Likens Charge Carrying Particles to a “Clown Car”

Setting impossible expectations of proof for his critics, Ken Wheeler dismisses the concept of a charge carrying particle out of hand. He likens it to a “clown car” because, in his mind, it’s absurd to think of a particle carrying a charge the way vehicles carry cargo.

As always, the Angry Photographer is wrong. Scientists don’t say that electrons “carry” a charge unless they are speaking loosely.

An electron’s negative charge is an inherent property. Electrons don’t carry cargo the way the Theoria Apophasis host hauls his hoard of gadgets to his cabin. Electrons are negatively charged by definition.

Tries to Refute Electrons Due to Wireless Power Induction

Cherry-picking claims by the fake electricity expert Eric Dollard, Ken Wheeler tries to refute the existence of electrons by pointing to wireless power induction. This technology has become commonplace for charging electric toothbrushes, smartphones, and watches, as well as for electric stoves.

Wireless power induction takes advantage of electric fields and the fact that a positively-charged plate attracts electrons. Engineers create wireless power induction using coils of wire to generate a magnetic field.

The transmitter, or charger, uses the flow of electrons from an external power source like a wall socket. It combines its electrical field with the magnetic field, producing what scientists call an electromagnetic field.

Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields Consist of Electrons

All three types of field consist of electrons. The electromagnetic field pushes on other electrons inside the receiving device. The receiving device channels the flow of electrons to an electrical load, such as a battery charger inside it.

So, wireless power induction proves the existence of electrons rather than refuting it. When confronted on this point, the Angry Photographer insists that scientists still can’t explain how wireless power induction works in a vacuum.

If induction couldn’t work in a vaccum, old-fashioned vacuum tubes wouldn’t work, and nobody would have invented any electronic devices. Electrons flow through a vacuum inside the tube from a cathode to a positively charged electric plate.

Electrons Can Freely Travel Through Vacuums

It’s a proven scientific fact that electrons can freely flow through vacuums as part of electromagnetic fields. Electrical engineers apply this principle every day.

The most familiar way we use use wireless power induction these days is to charge batteries. Of course, Ken Wheeler has his own explanation for how batteries work.

Science tells us that batteries contain cells that convert chemical energy into electrical energy through the postive and negative terminals at each end. The cells contain chemicals called eletrolytes that enable electrons to flow through them.

Unfounded Ideas About How a Battery Works

The Angry Photographer naturally has his own, unfounded ideas about how a battery works. He claims that a battery is “the division of a unit of energy from counter space that is divided spatially.”

Since we’ve already seen that there’s no such thing as counter space, there’s no need to continue, but we’ll persist. According to the Theoria Apophasis host, “all energy wants to vanish down a hole.”

Apparently, this hole is invisible. This hypothetical hole seems to be a means of explaining away the proven scientific phonomenon of negative charge.

Energy Can’t Be Destroyed, So It Can’t Vanish

Since energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it has no way of vanishing, down an invisible hole or in any other way. In Ken Wheeler’s world, negative charge is actually “a point of discharge,” but electrons have no means of discharging their inherent, negatively-charged property.

The creator of Theoria Apophasis also appeals to AC power generators to argue that electrons don’t exist. He insists that it’s impossible to “convert water flow into power,” and that “there’s no direct conversion from water, or wind, or hydroelectric, into power.”

As always, Ken Wheeler is wrong. By definition, “an electrical generator converts motive power, such as a river flow, into electrical power for use in an external circuit.”

Electric Generators Convert Motive Power into Electricity

Power stations use a rotating turbine to force a powerful electromagnet in its rotor core to turn on its axis. The rotation drives the the poles of the magnet past stationary, closed loops of conductive wire.

This relative movement between a circuit and the poles of a magnetic field create an alternating electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field pushes on the electrons in the wire loops, just like in the wireless power induction described above. The wire loops connect to an electrical load, which causes the electrons to flow and, voila, we have an alternating electric current.

So, the Angry Photographer’s objections notwithstanding, electrical generators do indeed convert water flow, or other mechanical energy like wind or steam, via a turbine into electric power. They accomplish this using the negatively charged particles we call electrons, without which the process would be impossible and we’d all be freezing in the dark.

Nothing to Do with Science or Engineering

There’s a reason Ken Wheeler refuses to accept that electric current is the flow of electrons through a conductive material. Unfortunately, it has nothing to do with science or engineering.

The Angry Photographer has latched onto the distinction between two metaphysical schools of thought in the ancient world. He views this distinction through a black and white, good versus evil lens.

The YouTuber behind Theoria Apophasis sides with Plato, who was an idealist, against Epicurus, who was a materialist. By sheer coincidence, Plato believed in the ether while Epicurus believed in atoms.

Sides with Platonists Because They Believed in Afterlife

Kentucky Ken is on Team Plato because Plato believed in the afterlife and Epicurus didn’t. His fear of death drives him to demonize any philosophy that denies the existence of an immortal human soul. By Ken Wheeler’s logic, atomists like Epicurus disagreed with Plato, therefore atomists were irredeemably evil and couldn’t be right about anything.

None of this remotely relates to modern science, which Ken Wheeler views as a vast conspiracy. No competent physicist or electrical engineer denies the existence of electrons in favour of the long discredited notion of the ether.

It’s beyond ironic that, despite his obsession with electronic gadgets and generating his own power to go off the electrical grid, Ken Wheeler is completely in the dark about the fundamentals of electricity. There’s not a particle of truth to any of his peculiar notions about electric charge and current.

Ken’s Evidence

Electricity and Electrons Explained Logically
Definitions of Nature and Its Phenomena with a Primer on Cosmology and Ontology
Lectures on Electromagnetic Theory
A Brief History of the Development of Classical Electrodynamics
Field Theory – Why Ken’s Wrong
Solar Panels – Why Ken’s Wrong
Magnetism – Why Ken’s Wrong